real science for today's homeschooler

Invisible Ink as a Chemical Reaction

Invisible Ink as a Chemical Reaction

Kids love spy gadgets and mystery! Use homemade invisible ink to write secret notes, then teach your child the science behind the process used to reveal the hidden messages.

There are many ways to make invisible ink. To use one of the safest methods, just use a Q-tip to write or draw on white paper with lemon juice. Actually, any fruit juice that contains citric acid will work, but lemon juice tends to dry the clearest, keeping the message hidden until revealed.

To reveal the message, the paper needs to be heated in some way. Whether or not your child can do this by themselves depends on the age of the child and the method used. Below are several ways to made the message visible. Choose the one most appropriate for your child:
1. Hold the paper over a candle. This is a slow method, requiring patience, as the candle can easily scorch the paper if brought too close.
2. Hold the paper over a hot light bulb. This method is very similar to the candle, but it does heat a larger area. The bulb must get very hot. For example, a 100 W incandescent bulb. Fluorescent bulbs won’t work. Care should be taken not to touch the bulb!
3. Carefully iron over the paper. Gives you a quick reveal but for safety, this needs to be done under direct parent supervision.
4. Heat the paper for about 5 minutes in the oven (around 350 degrees). Watch carefully to make sure the paper doesn’t overheat and burn. Again, direct parent supervision is needed for this method.
5. Hold the paper over a toaster. The hot air rising from the toaster should be enough to reveal the message.
6. Direct sunlight on a very hot day will sometimes be enough heat to bring out the hidden message.
7. I have heard that a very hot blow dryer will reveal the message, but I’ve never had any luck with this method.

Here’s the science behind the reveal . . . Paper is made of cellulose, a starch that makes up the body of plants. Cellulose is a tough, fibrous molecule made of many, many glucose (sugar) molecules connected in long chains. The acid in the lemon juice naturally breaks down the cellulose, separating the individual glucose molecules, which is a chemical reaction. Heat makes that process work even faster, as raising the temperature almost always increases the rate of a chemical reaction. The heat also caramelizes the sugars now in the paper, turning them a brown color. So, the brown message you see on the paper is actually caramel!

Share this on...Email this to someoneTweet about this on TwitterShare on Facebook

Cooking Up a Chemical Change

Cooking Up a Chemical Change

Chemical change can be a hard concept for children to understand. It’s much easier to explain a physical change. Water freezes into ice. The ice is still water and can be melted back into liquid water. Tear a piece of paper in half, and you still have the same paper. Both are physical changes. But how do you demonstrate chemical change?

The easiest example of a chemical change is burning a piece of paper. The paper turns to ask and becomes a new substance, much different from the original paper. But, what about other examples? Try baking! Spend some quality time with your child, make dessert, and teach science all at the same time!

A cake or cupcakes are probably the best desserts to use to clearly show a chemical change. Before getting started, collect all the ingredients that will go into the cake batter. You don’t have to make a “scratch” cake for this to work. Even if you’re only adding eggs, oil, and water to a cake mix, students can still observe the chemical changes.

Have your child observe all the beginning ingredients. Older children can make a written list of the physical properties (characteristics) of each of the ingredients. Do let them observe the ingredients directly . . . open the cake mix pouch, break the egg, etc.

Now, mix up the batter while letting your child help at a level appropriate for their age. While mixing ingredients, discuss changes that are taking place. Point out that even though they may look different, the ingredients are all still there and haven’t changed into anything else. For example, the egg is mixed in the batter, but it is still egg. Have your child observe the final raw batter. Point out that the batter is a “mixture” of ingredients, but none of them have been chemically changed.

Finally, add heat . . . bake the cake! Make observations of the ingredients after they have cooked together. Point out that one evidence of a chemical change is that you come out with a completely new substance that doesn’t look anything like the original. Going from cake batter to a fluffy cake will be a clear example of “forming a new substance” to your child. Also, ask your child what was needed to make the chemical change happen. Heat! Point out that many chemical changes require heat. The heat causes the original substances to recombine to form new substances. Who knew Chemistry could taste so good!

Share this on...Email this to someoneTweet about this on TwitterShare on Facebook